Pulmonology is concerned with the treatment of diseases of the lung, bronchi and surface of the lung (pleura), as well as the mediastinum (the space between the lungs). The most commonly treated diseases in pulmonology include chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), respiratory failure, asthma, infectious diseases (lung abscess, inflammation of the lungs, tuberculosis or bronchopneumonia) and sleep apnoea.