Corneal diseases come in many variations and can affect all the different layers of the cornea.
Corneal diseases are often accompanied by the sensation of having a foreign body in the eye or increased glare, whereby the loss of transparency of the cornea can even lead to loss of vision.
A wide variety of forms of inflammation, eye injuries or age-related and congenital diseases can be responsible for this.
The cornea is the transparent, crystal clear and translucent frontmost section of the eyeball and is located in front of the pupil. In a healthy condition, it is about half a millimetre thick. With its natural curvature, it contributes two-thirds of the refractive power of the eye, together with the lens.
The cornea is often referred to as the “protective screen” of the eye, as it is also responsible for protecting the eye against external aggressors. For this reason, diseases of the eye that affect the transparency or shape of the cornea can lead to serious visual impairments, which is why they require consultation with an ophthalmologist.
Anything that changes the cornea has a negative effect on vision, which is why a disease of the cornea eventually becomes noticeable with poor vision and increased glare sensitivity.
In the case of a cornea disease such as Fuchs’ dystrophy, the symptoms are worse after waking up and improve over the course of the day. In the case of dry eye, the exact opposite is true: Visual effort such as reading or computer work worsens the symptoms over the course of the day.
The eye disease keratoconus (i.e. the pathological, conical bulge of the cornea that can progress gradually) first becomes apparent through frequent changes in the strength of the glasses, whereby myopia can never be completely corrected. Double vision, and streaks and starburst rays may also appear in the vision. It is therefore important to pay particular attention to the following symptoms if a cornea disease is suspected:
Causes of corneal disease include inflammatory processes of an infectious and non-infectious nature, degenerative and hereditary changes of the cornea. Injuries and changes as a result of medical treatment can also lead to corneal disease. The individual diseases of the cornea and their causes at a glance:
Using a variety of modern instruments for exact measurement of the cornea, it is possible to make an exact diagnosis of the respective corneal disease.
Measurement of corneal thickness (pachymetry): The thickness of the cornea provides information about the stability of the cornea.
The individual corneal diseases require different treatment methods. Specifically, these are:
In the event of corneal disease, regular check-ups with an ophthalmologist to check your eyesight, determine the strength of your glasses and measure the surface of the cornea are important and crucial.
No, it can’t. For this very reason, degeneration processes, injuries, illnesses, infections or even genetic changes can lead to clouding or scarring of the cornea and impair vision and even lead to blindness.
In mild cases of the disease, doctors can try to remove the clouding with medication, drops and ointments or by laser treatment; in severe cases, if the cornea has already become milky, only the transplantation of a healthy cornea can help. Regular check-ups are important for early detection
Corneal topography is a modern, micro-precise examination method for measuring the cornea of the eye. In a few seconds, an ophthalmologist creates a coloured relief, a “map” of the cornea.